GONE WITH THE WIND

GONE WITH THE WIND

As Part 2 opens, Scarlett is shown picking cotton in the fields at Tara. Later, when she goes inside, a Yankee straggler comes in and tries to steal what’s left of their money, but Scarlett kills him and takes all of his looted money.

The war is finally over!! (1865) Frank Kennedy wants Suellen to marry him, and Ashley comes home to Tara. But there is trouble, the Yankee carpetbaggers and southern scalawags have raised the taxes on Tara. Now they are $300 — an unreachable amount of money. Ashley and Scarlett talk at the barn. Scarlett confesses her love for him again He says that he admires her fearlessness. They kiss, and then Scarlett asks Ashley to run away, then he says that she can’t go because she has too much honor to leave Tara. Emmy Slattery and Mr. Wilkinson come to Tara and offer to buy it from them. Scarlett tells them to leave. Gerald gets on his horse to chases them away, but he falls off and dies from a fall while he is jumping.

Scarlett decides that she’ll go see Rhett in Atlanta and ask him for the $300. She dresses up in a dress that she made out of curtains. Rhett is in jail, and he says that he can’t get his money out because it is hidden in Europe. After this Scarlett runs into Frank Kennedy. She marries him for the $300 , and then she starts a lumber business with Ashley. As Scarlett is on her way to the mill, she is attacked by hobos, but Big Sam saves her life.

Later that night, the women are all together, and India tells off Scarlett for all of the things that she has done. The husbands have gone to the woods to attack the men who attacked Scarlett. Rhett tries to save them from doing it but it is too late, Ashley was shot and Frank Kennedy was killed. (Poor Scarlett, widowed again!) Rhett makes up a lie to tell the Yankees of them being at Belle Whatley’s house, so that they can get back inside without Ashley getting arrested. Melanie invites Belle to her house to thank her for saving Ashley’s life.

Scarlett and Rhett are talking and he again asks her to marry him, and this time she says yes. They go on a grand honeymoon to New Orleans. Scarlett wants to go back to Tara. They go back, and build a mansion in Atlanta. They have a baby girl named ‘Bonnie Blue’ Butler. Scarlett doesn’t want to have anymore children because she is still in love with Ashley. They separate, and Rhett goes to see Belle and she convinces him to go back, because the Bonnie needs him. Rhett gets drunk one night after Melanie’s party and he wants to rid Ashley in Scarlett’s mind forever. This is the famous ‘carry her (to bed) up the Grand Staircase’ scene.

The next morning he apologizes then says he is going to London and taking Bonnie with him. Bonnie hates it there and says that she wants to go home and see her mother. Rhett takes Bonnie home, and then says he’s leaving. Scarlett tells him that she is pregnant, they both say that they don’t want the baby and Rhett says maybe Scarlett will have an accident. As he says this she falls down the stairs. Scarlett lost the baby. After some time, Mellie tells Rhett that Scarlett is better. They are on the patio talking and watching Bonnie, when Bonnie decides that she will jump. But she does not make it and dies, just like Gerald.

Mammy calls on Mellie to help her, because Scarlett and Rhett are both distraught. But Mellie is very ill, and falls when she is at their house and never recovers. Mellie dies shortly after. Scarlett realizes as Mellie dies that her love for Ashley never existed, and that she really loves Rhett. She rushes home to tell him, but it is too late. He has already made up his mind to go to Charleston. Scarlett begs him not to go, “where shall I go …. what shall I do?” But Rhett says, “Frankly my dear, I don’t give a damn.”

Scarlett believes that she needs to get him back so she says she’ll go to Tara to think, to the place that gives her strength. “After all,” Scarlett says, “tomorrow is another day.”

Starting off the great wall of china

Starting off the great wall of china

The great wall of china is said to be the most important and historical place in the entire world. People prefer to know about every part of history which involved this largest wall in the world. It is said that from the sky you can see only one thing from the naked eyes and that is the great wall of china. This wall has a great history and the reasons why it was built. However, many myths and other legends are famous for this great wall of china. But today we are going to mention some great facts about the building of this structure.

Origin of the idea

Originally emperor Qin Shi Huang came with this particular idea of creating the great wall of china. He ordered the construction of the great wall nearly 221 B.C. You can see that it is a huge structure and at that time no advanced resources were available that are available at present. People worked hard on every aspect and they created this wall with the conventional methods only.

The huge labor force was put on the work and they started building the great wall of china. You will not believe in this fact but this is the truth that more than millions of people were involved in the work were also died during the construction. The other thing that you will be surprised to know that many people were also buried in the wall itself when it was being created.

Different dynasty

Many dynasties worked towards the wall but it is said that after the death of the Qin Shi Huang and Qin Dynasty not many things were done with the progress of the wall. Due put the huge loss to the wall. After the fall of the Han dynasty, many tribes seized the control of northern China. Furthermore, one dynasty of china recognized the importance of the wall and played a major role to reinstall the structure in the right sense. The name of this particular dynasty was Northern Wei. They worked towards the repair, expansion, and maintenance of the wall to protect themselves from the regular attacks of the world.

Creation and expansion

Further, one more king put a significant contribution in this direction and started building the great wall of china. It is said that he worked in the same direction and repaired or build nearly nine hundred miles of the wall. It is said that he could not rules for a long time but his contribution to the wall was significant. This is so because during his reign he orders to expand and repair of the wall in several folds. They are known as the Bei Qi Kingdom and Sui Dynasty, which rules 550-577 and 581-681 considerably.

Gaining glory

The wall got much importance during the 18th and 20th centuries. Since then it is recognized as the most common emblem for china. This is also a symbol of Chinese strength and psychological representation in the entire world for them. Now they are controlling and maintain on the regular basis and it is open to the citizens and tourists as well.

Man Of History

Man Of History

Barack Obama, an African-American, steps into the vortex of power as America’s 44th president, with high hopes of bringing change not just to his country but the whole world.

It was a momentous event presaged by black civil rights leader, the late Martin Luther King Jnr, 46 years ago. And the outpouring of emotions, the joy, the celebrations all over the world, from Kenya, his father’s birth place to Japan, Indonesia, from the streets of New York, to London, Berlin and Paris—all underscored its historic significance. As Barack Obama, 47, stepped forward to be sworn in as America’s first black president on 20 January, hope in a new global chapter under his leadership was unmistakable. More than two million people crammed into Capitol Hill and other streets of Washington to watch Obama’s inauguration and listen to his speech. On television worldwide, about 1.5 billion watched the event. Such is the awesome response to Obama the world over.

Even in the Arab world where America is intensely disliked because of the foreign policy errors of past administrations, there is hope, as is the case in other parts of the world, that with Obama as the leader of the free world, change will come. And his middle name, Hussein, also makes him difficult to hate in the Muslim world. Salah al-Mohaisen, a Saudi man who runs a jewelry store in Riyadh said he was overjoyed at Obama’s election. “I feel that he could understand Arab suffering” he said, in apparent reference to the suffering of Palestinians, under Israel occupation.

In Iran, many of the citizens hope Obama will bring about a significant change in US policy and perhaps restore diplomatic relations between both countries. Muna Abdul Razak, a 37-year-old primary school teacher in the Northern Iraqi city of Mosal expressed the hope that “Obama will be more responsible than Bush who destroyed Iraq. “Everybody likes him. I am hopeful that he is really going to change things for the better, by transforming US policy towards the Middle East’’.

That the emergence of Barack Obama is not just a welcome departure from the brutish politics and war mongering that his predecessor, George W. Bush represented, the ascent of an African-American as president shows the country has buried many decades of racism and is poised to turn a new chapter of racial harmony.But the success story of the 47-year-old junior senator from Illinois began with the keynote address he read at the Democratic Convention in Boston in the summer of 2004. Before then, he was largely unknown outside his state of Illinois, where as a youth he cut his teeth as a community mobiliser. But that changed moments after he mounted the podium and delivered a moving speech about the American spirit and the artificial divisions working against the realisation of its full destiny.

“I stand here knowing that my story is part of the larger American story, that I owe a debt to all of those who came before me, and that in no other country on earth is my story even possible,” the young senator said.

Many who listened to his speech truly thought that he had a great future in politics, but not many would immediately tip him for the presidency. But Obama on 10 February 2008 announced his candidacy for the US top job. He had not even spent a full term as senator. He alluded to his inexperience when he said, “I know I haven’t spent a lot of time learning the ways of Washington. But I’ve been here long enough to know that the ways of Washington must change.” He faced Hillary Clinton, a former first lady, in the contest for the Democratic Party’s nomination. All political pundits and pollsters pointed to a Hillary Clinton victory against a man still seen as a political upstart.

But against all odds Obama prevailed. He trounced Clinton in the opening caucuses at Iowa, built up momentum and eventually beat her to the party’s ticket. His giant killing did not end there. For the presidential election proper he was up against Republican opponent, Senator John McCain of Arizona, who had spent close to 25 years in Congress. Though so much capital was made of Obama’s inexperience, he ran an aggressive, effective and technology-driven campaign, reaching out to Americans from all races and age, preaching the gospel of change. In mobilising Americans for the change he envisions, Obama also raised an unprecedented campaign funds of close to a billion dollars, from the people. He drove the point home that four more years of a Republican administration would be suicidal for the American people, as the ruling party had failed spectacularly to manage the economy, resulting in massive job and home losses. He made a good job of convincing Americans that McCain is not different from Bush

The rest is history. Four more years of an administration akin to that of Bush was inconceivable for Americans and so on 4 November, they gave Obama a landslide victory. His ascendance also redefined America’s electoral geography, as he won in states hitherto dominated by the Republicans.

Top ways which help to improve your art

Top ways which help to improve your art

If you want to make the best art, there are some ways to improve. As we all know, art plays a vital role, and it is becoming more and more popular in the coming days. If you want to become a better artist, some tips help you improve your art. There are many types of arts, such as painting, photography, crafting, design, and many more. There are many methods, such as focusing on work that you care about, improving your art.

Here are some ways

If your art is right, then peoples also care about your art, and you will get a better value for it. You must practice your art, which also helps you to bring creativity to your work. So here we are discussing some of the ways which help you to improve your art.

  • Must have a concept before starting

It is essential that you must have some concept in your mind before starting, which you will make. It will provide you a basic idea which will help you to improve your art; if you do not have a concept, then it will not express your thinking, which will be accomplished. So it is essential to have a concept that expresses you something that will help you improve your art, which can help you make better. It is like a map, which means you have to see a map for your location before going to it. So you must have a concept in your mind before you begin.

  • Understand about colors

As we all know, colors play a significant role in any art. Color behaves like the energy in the art, making it better, so you must understand colors. Color is also considered in two parts. One is a cool color, and the other is warm; both have different effects on art. Cool colors bring to mind a calming effect, and it also helps lower heart rate and reduces appetite. There are many like blues and greens that are used in advertising health care products and many more. Warm colors convey emotions from happiness to violence, which triggers hunger; as we all know, some of the restaurant’s logos like burger king have these colors in them.

  • Must keep your art simple

It is also one of the ways that you must keep your art simple, which helps you to improve your art. If you use great colors and too much information in your art, it will be tough to identify the art subject. It also distracts or irritates the viewer, which makes it worse and can affect your work. So it would help if you kept it simple and ordinary, which makes it better and helps to improve.

Conclusion

So these are some of the ways which help you to improve your art. These ways are enough to make your art better, but you must practice more and more which help to improve your art. Above -mentioned points are enough to understand it.

A Night to Remember

A Night to Remember

In the crow’s nest, Fleet sees a large iceberg dead ahead and signals the bridge. He quickly reached above him and rang the bell three times. This was to signal that there was something out ahead. Fleet reached for the telephone and waited until it was picked up below. When it was answered he asked “Is there someone there?” “Yes” replied Officer Moody. “What do you see?” “Iceberg right ahead” Fleet answered. “Thank you” Moody replied as he hung up the phone. Sixth Officer Moody relays the message to Murdoch who instinctively orders “Hard-a-starboard” and telegraphs the engine room to stop all engines, followed by full astern. He also closes the watertight doors.

Titanic slowly begins to veer, but an underwater spar from the passing berg scraps and bumps along the starboard side for a 300-foot distance fully opening five forward compartments to the sea, as well as flooding the coal bunker servicing the No. 9 stokehold.

11:42 p.m. Aside from the men on the bridge and those closest to the impact, few realized that anything had happened. George Symons, just off duty as lookout, was lying in his bunk and thought that the anchor had dropped and the scraping sound he had heard was the chain running out of the ship. Henry Sleeper Harper, of the American publishing family, sat up in his bed and saw the iceberg pass his window, pieces of it crumbling as it went by. There were huge chunks of ice on the deck that people were kicking around as if it were a game.

Almost everyone in the first-class smoking room stood up from their seats when the jarring motion disturbed the room. Quartermaster George Rowe, located on the poop deck at the very stern of the ship, felt the jarring motion and, seeing the iceberg, walked to the rail to watch it pass.

11:55 p.m. The post office on “G” Deck forward is already flooding. After a quick inspection of the damage by Wilde, Boxhall and Andrews, Captain Smith knows the worst…that Titanic was sinking and the more than 2,200 people on board were in extreme peril.

Bruce Ismay, who had been asleep in his luxurious suite on B-deck, had also been awakened by the strange noise caused by the iceberg. Without bothering to change out of his nightclothes, he went to the bridge and asked Captain Smith what had happened. “We have struck ice,” Smith replied. “Do you think the ship is seriously damaged?” Ismay asked, hoping that things weren’t as bad as they might be. “I am afraid she is.”

Thomas Andrews, managing director of Harland & Wolff, arrived on the bridge a few minutes after Ismay departed. He told Captain Smith, in detail, of the full seriousness of the Titanic’s current situation. It was clear, based on reports received from throughout the ship, that the Titanic’s first six watertight compartments had been ruptured. The ship had never been designed to take this type of damage. The ship had been gashed opened to the sea.

Monday, April 15, 1912 shortly after midnight, Captain Smith ordered a radio call for assistance. Phillips taps out the regulation distress signal CQD…MGY…CQD…MGY… The 13,600 ton Cunard ship Carpathia recieved the message. Her Captain, Arthur Rostron, immediately turned his ship around and headed at full speed toward the Titanic’s radioed position.

The squash court, 32 feet above keel, is awash. The majority of the boilers have been shut down, and huge clouds of steam roar out of the relief pipes secured to the sides of the funnels. Smith orders that the lifeboats be uncovered and musters the crew and passengers.

12:15 a.m. Wallace Hartley and his band begin to play lively ragtime tunes in the 1st Class lounge on “A” Deck. They would continue to almost the end, and every member of the band would be lost.

12:25 a.m. Smith gives the order to start loading lifeboats with women and children. 2nd Officer Lightoller follows this order particularly to the letter.

Things you need to do to save humanity in you!

Things you need to do to save humanity in you!

It is almost a moral duty of every human being to perform some humanity things like kindness mercy help and so on around their surroundings, which helps you to save this word up to some extent and their moral values. Nowadays, we regularly appear from negative news like many wars happened between the world’s two nations. Whenever any War happened in the world, it not only affects the economic condition of a particular country but It also affects humanity’s overall rate in this very world, which is necessary for us to save to live our lives with peace and harmony.

Many persons exist in this world who regularly faces some significant problem just because of the particular reasons like having gone through the natural calamities and facing hate from the others. For example, in the Indian subcontinent country, many people suffer only because they are related to different caste and creed. Many high society people bring some wrong things with poor people, not suitable for humanity.

Furthermore, I would like to explain to you some things that will help you enlighten humanity in yourself and gives some kind of encouragement to others..

Take part in the cultural programs.

  • You must take part in the cultural programs where you can do various things to enlighten humanity among you. Every cultural program includes some specific items like dance dresses, and so on; many people also give some relief in the shape of real-time money to all the people who are related to the same caste and creed.
  • You need to give some money and food in this particular cultural program where you can get all the things you need to perform to become a real human being.
  • However, cultural programs also allow you to learn a few basics about your religion, which you belong to, and always help you learn humanity’s word in a more profound sense.

Be a part of welfare societies.

  • Becoming part of welfare societies is also essential for every people in this world to save humanity in themselves if you give some time to the Welfare societies, who go here and there to help all those suffering from the specific difficulty because of the natural calamities happened every year in the various parts of the world.
  • Whenever the Tornado Tsunami flood earthquake happened, many people started to suffer because of the lack of money, no place to live, and so on lost just because of the same calamity.
  • So at that time, you need to give some relief to all those suffering a lot because of the specific problems. You need to give some money in the shape of a donation to all the poor people who lost their essential family members and all the things they earn in their life.

All the above things can help you to improve your humanity standards, which you need to upgrade as a human being who wants to see peace and harmony in this world.

Humanity as a great virtue to show to others to become a better human!

Humanity as a great virtue to show to others to become a better human!

With the help of humananity virtue, you can always gain some extra amount of attraction that you cannot gain with your precious money and other items like a gold diamond and so on among the people of the world. It is humanity only, which helps you become a perfect person who regularly works for their family and always things for other human beings living around their surroundings just to save human race on the earth.

Many religions and cultures always emphasize the importance of humanity, which is very much necessary for us to save to live life with peace and harmony. You can always do so many kinds of things to improve humanity’s standards in the very word and have the same part of the world to become Pandora’s box.

Need to help poor’s regularly with money and other important essentials

As a human being hit is your moral duty to help all those facing some specific problems in their day-to-day life and unable to live their lives peacefully and in harmony. Your small help can change some person’s life who need a great help from others in the shape of money, food, shelter, etc.

You need to donate some part of your virtual money, which you earned after so much hard work in the multinational companies, for your regular bread and butter. You also need to contact some people to lose their hope of living a happy life, and you must contact and give some sympathy to get some special encouragement to live life happily again.

Never hate anybody around you

You don’t need to hate anybody in these people who also the creature of God. Every creature exists in this particular world needs kindness, sympathy, and Mercy, most of the time, to get some positiveness to live life again without any difficulties. If you show Mercy, kindness sympathy towards others, you get repaid from the same person, which is always an obvious thing for every human being in this world.

Never try to hurt any relatively low people than you and always need to give them all the kind of encouragement they can earn their livelihoods without any embarrassment of being poor in the world.

Take part in the charity very often.

It is quite right for you to take part in the charity where many persons gather an enormous amount of money to help all those facing some problems due to natural calamities like earthquake tornadoes.

Whenever any person lost their family in the political calamities of earthquake and flood, they got shattered, and there is no hope left for them to live life again happily. In that case, our fundamental had the moral duty to show all the sympathy towards the needed people.

Finally, in the end, I can say that all the above things about the virtue of humanity are going to give you all the best of encouragement to perform positive things around you.

The Murderers and their Accessories

The Murderers and their Accessories

W/Cdr Wilfred “Freddie” Bowes, F/Lt (later S/Ldr) Francis McKenna, F/Lt (later S/Ldr) “Dickie” Lyon, F/Lt Stephen Courtney, F/Lt Harold Harrison and W/O H J Williams, of the Royal Air Force Special Investigation Branch, painstakingly travelled Europe and gradually pieced together enough evidence to identify the culprits. Lt. Col. A P Scotland, an Army Intelligence expert, interrogated many suspects at the London Cage.

The Court President at the resulting trials was Maj-General H L Longden; the Judge Advocate was Mr C L Stirling, with a panel of six senior military officers – three Army Colonels, two RAF Wing Commanders and an RAF Air Commodore. Ten German lawyers – one a woman, Dr Anna Oehlert – formed the defence team. The Court pronounced its verdict on September 3rd 1947, and in early February 1948, thirteen of the perpetrators were hanged at Hamelin Gaol, Hamburg.

A short while after this, a second trial took place for three more of the accused.

(W/Cdr Bowes and S/Ldr McKenna were later both awarded the OBE for their work in bringing the culprits to justice. Lt Col Scotland also received the OBE for this, and other, duties.)

German Luftwaffe

General Grosch was the Luftwaffe officer directly responsible for the security and welfare of prisoners of war. He and his deputy, Colonel Waelde, were Interrogated by Lt.Col. Scotland at the London Cage. A German civilian, Peter Mohr, who worked in the Kriminalpolizei and who was outraged at the murders, provided key information to the interrogators.

Breslau Gestapo

Standartenfuhrer Seetzen was involved with the Breslau Sicherheitsdienst, and arrested in Hamburg on September 28th 1945, after identification by former colleagues. He bit on a cyanide capsule whilst being taken for interrogation, and died within minutes.

Obersturmbannfuhrer Max Wielen, Breslau Gestapo Chief, was sentenced to life imprisonment on 3-Sep-47 but only served a few years before being released.

Gestapo Chief Dr Wilhelm Scharpwinkel was masquerading as a Lt Hagamann in the No 6 Hospital at Breslau when Frau Gerda Zembrodt, corroborated by Klaus Lonsky, saw Russian officers remove him at gunpoint. During the enquiry into the murders, the Russians refused to co-operate with the Allied investigation, although after much prodding they allowed Scharpwinkel to make a statement, in Moscow, during August and September 1946. Soon afterwards, Scharpwinkel disappeared and although reported dead by the Russians on 17-Oct-47, was believed to have found a high position in the Soviet administration.

He and his associate Lux murdered Cross, Casey, Wiley, Leigh, Pohe and Hake. The next day Lux executed Humphries, McGill, Swain, Hall, Langford, Evans, Valenta, Kolanowski, Stewart and Birkland. The day after that, he executed Kiewnarski, Pawluk, Wernham and Skanzikas. On April 6th, Lux murdered Grisman, J E Williams, Milford, Street and McGarr. Long followed soon after. Lux is also believed to have killed Tobolski and Krol, who vanished in the same area as the others. Lux, with at least twenty-seven murders on his soul, died in the fighting around Breslau at the end of the war. Gunn, killed at Breslau, is likely to have been another of their victims.

Krimilalkommissar Dr Gunther Absalon investigated the escape and poked around at Sagan for some weeks. He chaired the German enquiry into the Escape and collected evidence. It is not clear what happened to him or whether or not he was involved in the murder conspiracy. Absalon, seen alive and well in Breslau in May 1946, was reported to me as (a) being hanged and (b) having died in a Russian prison in May 1948.

Soon after 1948 the investigators caught up with Erwin Wieczorek had been involved with the killing of Cross, Casey, Leigh, Wiley, Poole and Hake. He was sentenced to death but later the sentence was quashed.

Richard Haensel was acquitted on 6-Nov-48; Dankert and Kreuzer disappeared. Kiske, Knappe, Kuhnel, Pattke and Lang were killed in the Breslau fighting. Lauffer committed suicide. Prosse died in 1944 after an unsuccessful stomach operation. Hampel was not tried, and Schroeder was a material witness.

Brno/Zlin Gestapo

Brno Gestapo Chief Hugo Romer, believed to have given instructions for the murders of Kirby-Green and Kidder, disappeared. Kriminalrat Hans Ziegler, Gestapo Chief of Moravia, arranged the killing of S/L Tim Kirby-Green and F/O Kidder, which was done by Erich Zacharias (arrested in Fallersleben, also after having been given away by his deserted wife) and Adolf Knippelberg (arrested in Czechoslovakia), with drivers Friedrich Kiowsky (arrested in Prague by the Czechs) and Schwartzer. Knippelberg, Hauptsturmfuhrer Franz Schauschutz (arrested in Austria) and Zacharias were recognised from a painted mural in a dubious wartime Gestapo night club. The Czechs executed Schwarzer and Kiowski in 1947. Ziegler committed suicide in the London Cage (Cockfosters) on 3-Feb-48. Zacharias, described by Lt. Col. Scotland as “without doubt the most uncivilised, brutal, and morally indecent character in the entire story” was hanged at Hamelin on 27-Feb-48. Knippelberg was captured by the Russians; released in 1945, he disappeared.

Wilhelm Nolle was arrested 10-Jun-48 but was not tried; Otto Koslowsky was executed by the Czechs in 1947.

Danzig Gestapo

Danzig Gestapo Chief Dr Venediger ordered many of the killings and received 2 years on 17-Dec-57. The deaths of Henri Picard, Tim Walenn, Edward Brettell and Romas Marcinkus were believed to have been at the hands of Hauptmann Reinholt Bruchardt, who was traced in 1948 and sentenced to death but later commuted to life imprisonment (in Germany, this meant 21 years). Max Kilpe, Harry Witt and Herbert Wenzler were not prosecuted; Walter Sasse, Walter Voelz and Julius Hug disappeared.

Karlsruhe Gestapo

Oberregierungsrat Josef Gmeiner, who with Kriminalsekretar Otto Preiss shot Cochran, aided by his driver Heinrich Boschert. The latter was arrested in Karlsruhe, the French handed over Gmeiner, and all three were sentenced to death, although Boschert’s sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Gmeiner, Preiss and Walter Herberg were hanged at Hamelin on 27-Feb-48.

Otto Gannicher committed suicide 26-Apr-46; Magnus Wochner given 10 years.

Kiel Gestapo

Chief Friedrich Schmidt and his deputy Sturmbannfuhrer Johannes Post were being eagerly sought by the RAF SIB. Post, living with his mistress Marianne Heydt, was arrested at Minden under a false name after being given away by the wife he had deserted. Arrogant to the last, he admitted the murder of Catenach, Christiansen, Espelid and Fugelsgang, under the orders and assistance of Danzig Gestapo Chief Dr Venediger, and aided by Hans Kaehler and his associate at Danzig. Post, Oskar Schmidt, Walter Jacobs and Kaehler were hanged at Hamelin on 27-Feb-48; Friedrich Schmidt escaped prosecution until May 1968 when he was sentenced to 2 years in prison. Drivers Arthur Denkman and Wilhelm Struve were each given 10 years on 3-Sep-47.

Franz Schmidt committed suicide 27-Oct-46

Munich Gestapo

Gestapo agents Johan Schneider, Emil Weil and Eduard Geith shot Gouws and Stevens; all were hanged at Hamelin on 27-Feb-48. Charges against Oswald Schafer were dismissed on 11-Dec-68; Martin Schermer committed suicide on 25-Mar-45.

Reichenburg Gestapo

Gestapo Chief Bernhard Baatz, Robert Weyland and Robert Weissman of Bruex arranged the killing of W Williams, Bull, Kierath and Mondschein. Baatz disappeared after being released by the Russians; Weyland stayed living in the Russian Zone. The French later captured Weissman, but his fate is unknown.

Saarbrucken Gestapo

Oberleutnant Dr Leopold Spann (killed 25-Apr-45 in an air raid on Linz), Gestapo Chief at Saarbrucken, Kriminalsekretar Emil Schulz (found to be custody at Saarbrucken under a false identity) and driver Walter Breithaupt (arrested in Frankfurt) were responsible for the deaths of Roger Bushell and Bernard Scheidhauer. Schulz was hanged at Hamelin 27-Feb-48, Breithaupt given life on 3-Sep-47.

Strasburg Gestapo

The portly Alfred Schimmel, a former solicitor, and another unidentified Gestapo man took Hayter from Strasburg jail on April 6th 1944, and killed him near Breslau. Schimmel was hanged at Hamelin, 27-Feb-48,

Max Dissner committed suicide 11-May-45; Heinrich Hilker acquitted and died 11-Apr-48; Erich Isslhorst executed for other crimes.

How the starting of big wars took place in the history

How the starting of big wars took place in the history

Great world wars brought destruction and death to the world. Several types of experiments were done to kill the enemies. In the race of collecting the most advanced wears, many people were spending their lives in research and development of advanced weapons. The world war first war, which started in a particular place but later on, spread in the entire world. In the historical records, you can find that millions of people were killed, lost, and handicapped in such wars.

Massive killing

Millions of soldiers were moving from one place to another to win the battles. One can also say that many wars were fought in history but this particular war is still famous for its large-scale operations in the battleground. Millions of people lost their lives. Civilians and combatants both were dead in the counting of millions. The worst part is that it came with the pandemic Spanish flu in which more than a hundred million people of the world died. This put a quite negative impact on the economical conditions and living standards of the people.

Signs of destruction

Some parts of the world were so much affected that you can still feel the signs of destruction in them. Centuries are gone but the pain in the heart of the people still exists whose relatives, friends, or known were affected. You can still feel the impact of the wars on their lives as well. You can say that it was the worst time for humanity. This put many negative impacts on the mind of the people and they were not able to cure for years.

Bringing death and destruction

Now you must be thinking about the negative impact of this historical event. Never forget the fact that wars are not good for anyone. Nevertheless, to be specific there were many negative impacts of world war I. this put the monarchies to the end in many countries, which included Germany, Turkey, Austria-Hungary, and Russia as well. Now people were becoming more ideological.

The other thing that it did was put colonialism to the end. People became conscious about the national value and they were paying special attention to stay as one nation. Colonial revolts were started in many countries. This spread like a forest fire and many started this revolution to put colonialism to an end.

Changing the face of war

Even after the massing death and destruction from the battle, many diseases started spreading. The world was not ready for it. Massing groups of soldiers were roaming around in the entire world and they have to travel to different places every day. Many serious diseases like Spanish flu, influenza spread in the entire world, and people started dying.

As per the estimation, nearly 25 million died because of the pandemic effect. Many new weapons were used in the battleground. This gave birth to the rat race of collecting more advanced weapons before another country does. This changes the face of the entire war and now armies of the various countries started thinking about the invention of new weapons.

The Escape Committee

The Escape Committee

Some of the finest escape artists in the Allied Air Forces arrived at Luft III. Squadron Leader (S/L) Roger J Bushell, CO of No 92 (Spitfire) Squadron had been shot down in May 1940, during the Battle of France. On a previous escape he had been hiding in Prague and was caught in the aftermath of the Heydrich assassination. The family hiding him were all executed by the Gestapo and Jack Zaphouk, his Czech co-escaper, was purged to Colditz Castle. Bushell developed a cold unyielding hatred for the enemy but failed, however, to distinguish between the Gestapo and the far better type represented by the Camp Kommandant.

Although the first SBO (Senior British Officer) was Group Captain Harry “Wings” Day (57 Sqdn, shot down 13-Oct-39, Blenheim I, L1138), he was succeeded by the arrival in June 1942 of a more senior officer, G/C Herbert M Massey, a rugged veteran WW1 pilot, and in October 1942 Wings Day was sent to Offizierlager (Oflag, or Officer Camp) XXIB. Bushell masterminded the Luft III Escape Organization, together with an executive committee of Flying Officer (F/O) Wally Floody (J5481), Peter ‘Hornblower’ Fanshawe RN and Flight Lieutenant (F/L) George Harsh (102 Sqdn, shot down 5/6-Oct-42, Halifax II W7824).

(Ranks Page)

Bushell collected the most skilled forgers, tailors, tunnel engineers and surveillance experts and announced his intention to put 250 men outside the wire. This would cause a tremendous problem and cause the enemy to divert men and resources to round up the escapers. His idea was not so much to return escapers to the UK but mainly to cause a giant internal problem for the German administration. He went about this task with a typical determinedness, despite having been officially warned that his next escape and recapture would result in him being shot.

Key Personnel

Tunnel engineering was in the expert hands of Floody, a Canadian Spitfire pilot and prewar mining engineer. The original ‘Tunnel King’, he masterminded the construction of all three tunnels, aided by F/Lt R. G. “Crump” Ker-Ramsey (Fighter Interception Unit, shot down on a night patrol 13/14-Sep-40, Blenheim IVF Z5721), Henry “Johnny” Marshall, Fanshawe, and a host of others. The dapper Rhodesian Johnny Travis and his team of manufacturers made escape kit such as compasses from fragments of broken Bakelite gramophone records, melted and shaped and incorporating a tiny needle made from slivers of magnetised razor blades. Stamped on the underside was ‘Made in Stalag Luft 3 – Patent Pending’.

F/L Des Plunkett (218 Sqdn, shot down 20/21-6-42, Stirling I, W7530 HA:Q) and his team assumed responsibility for map making. Real ID papers and passes were obtained by bribery or theft from the guards and copied by F/L ‘Tim’ Walenn and his forgers. These two departments were known as “Dean and Dawson” after a well-known firm of travel agents. Service uniforms were carefully recut by Tommy Guest and his men, who also produced workmens’ clothes and other ‘civilian’ attire. These were often hidden in spaces created by ace carpenter Pilot Officer (P/O) “Digger” Macintosh (12 Sqdn, shot down 12-May-40, Battle I, L5439 PH:N).

A surprising number of guards proved co-operative in supplying railway timetables, maps, and the bewildering number of official papers required for escapers. One tiny mistake in forgery, or one missing document would immediately betray the holder, a problem complicated by the fact that the official stamps and appearance of the various papers were changed regularly by the Germans. It was necessary to obtain details of the lie of the land directly outside the camp, and especially ascertain the location of the nearest railway station. Bribery by cigarettes or chocolate usually worked. In one case, a less than intelligent guard provided key information for which he was paid in chocolate. The prisoner asked him to sign a receipt, explaining that it was necessary to account for the chocolate. The guard obliged, and was soon blackmailed into bringing in a camera and film, Bushell being quite ruthless in exploiting such opportunities.

Forged papers included Dienstausweise (permission to be on Wehrmacht property), Urlaubscheine (military leave pass), Ruckkehrscheine (for foreign workers returning home), Kennkarte (general identity card), Sichtvermark (visa), Ausweise and Vorlaufweise (pass and temporary pass). Many of these required weeks of work to reproduce.

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