The Escape Committee

The Escape Committee

Some of the finest escape artists in the Allied Air Forces arrived at Luft III. Squadron Leader (S/L) Roger J Bushell, CO of No 92 (Spitfire) Squadron had been shot down in May 1940, during the Battle of France. On a previous escape he had been hiding in Prague and was caught in the aftermath of the Heydrich assassination. The family hiding him were all executed by the Gestapo and Jack Zaphouk, his Czech co-escaper, was purged to Colditz Castle. Bushell developed a cold unyielding hatred for the enemy but failed, however, to distinguish between the Gestapo and the far better type represented by the Camp Kommandant.

Although the first SBO (Senior British Officer) was Group Captain Harry “Wings” Day (57 Sqdn, shot down 13-Oct-39, Blenheim I, L1138), he was succeeded by the arrival in June 1942 of a more senior officer, G/C Herbert M Massey, a rugged veteran WW1 pilot, and in October 1942 Wings Day was sent to Offizierlager (Oflag, or Officer Camp) XXIB. Bushell masterminded the Luft III Escape Organization, together with an executive committee of Flying Officer (F/O) Wally Floody (J5481), Peter ‘Hornblower’ Fanshawe RN and Flight Lieutenant (F/L) George Harsh (102 Sqdn, shot down 5/6-Oct-42, Halifax II W7824).

(Ranks Page)

Bushell collected the most skilled forgers, tailors, tunnel engineers and surveillance experts and announced his intention to put 250 men outside the wire. This would cause a tremendous problem and cause the enemy to divert men and resources to round up the escapers. His idea was not so much to return escapers to the UK but mainly to cause a giant internal problem for the German administration. He went about this task with a typical determinedness, despite having been officially warned that his next escape and recapture would result in him being shot.

Key Personnel

Tunnel engineering was in the expert hands of Floody, a Canadian Spitfire pilot and prewar mining engineer. The original ‘Tunnel King’, he masterminded the construction of all three tunnels, aided by F/Lt R. G. “Crump” Ker-Ramsey (Fighter Interception Unit, shot down on a night patrol 13/14-Sep-40, Blenheim IVF Z5721), Henry “Johnny” Marshall, Fanshawe, and a host of others. The dapper Rhodesian Johnny Travis and his team of manufacturers made escape kit such as compasses from fragments of broken Bakelite gramophone records, melted and shaped and incorporating a tiny needle made from slivers of magnetised razor blades. Stamped on the underside was ‘Made in Stalag Luft 3 – Patent Pending’.

F/L Des Plunkett (218 Sqdn, shot down 20/21-6-42, Stirling I, W7530 HA:Q) and his team assumed responsibility for map making. Real ID papers and passes were obtained by bribery or theft from the guards and copied by F/L ‘Tim’ Walenn and his forgers. These two departments were known as “Dean and Dawson” after a well-known firm of travel agents. Service uniforms were carefully recut by Tommy Guest and his men, who also produced workmens’ clothes and other ‘civilian’ attire. These were often hidden in spaces created by ace carpenter Pilot Officer (P/O) “Digger” Macintosh (12 Sqdn, shot down 12-May-40, Battle I, L5439 PH:N).

A surprising number of guards proved co-operative in supplying railway timetables, maps, and the bewildering number of official papers required for escapers. One tiny mistake in forgery, or one missing document would immediately betray the holder, a problem complicated by the fact that the official stamps and appearance of the various papers were changed regularly by the Germans. It was necessary to obtain details of the lie of the land directly outside the camp, and especially ascertain the location of the nearest railway station. Bribery by cigarettes or chocolate usually worked. In one case, a less than intelligent guard provided key information for which he was paid in chocolate. The prisoner asked him to sign a receipt, explaining that it was necessary to account for the chocolate. The guard obliged, and was soon blackmailed into bringing in a camera and film, Bushell being quite ruthless in exploiting such opportunities.

Forged papers included Dienstausweise (permission to be on Wehrmacht property), Urlaubscheine (military leave pass), Ruckkehrscheine (for foreign workers returning home), Kennkarte (general identity card), Sichtvermark (visa), Ausweise and Vorlaufweise (pass and temporary pass). Many of these required weeks of work to reproduce.

Creation of the great building of pyramids

Creation of the great building of pyramids

The creation of some beautiful structure in history is always a matter of surprise for the world and this includes the great buildings of the pyramids. You should be quite careful about the various factors when you talk about the creation of the most mysterious buildings in the world. Giza’s pyramids are famous in the entire world for their great design and mysteries. 

Indeed some of them are still being found. The complete knowledge about the construction of such pyramids is still a challenge for many. Archeologists are still trying to find out how such buildings survived and this is the most beautiful part of world history that everyone would like to know about. 

Creation of historical structure 

This historical structure was built because of the faith of the people of Egypt. The king of Egypt that were known as pharaohs believe in the afterlife and rebirth. They thought that before death they should have enough resources and things of need with them to get them in the afterlife. They believe that one day they will reborn again as a god. They created many temples and massive pyramids tombs for themselves. Many gold ornaments, utensils, and many other things were buried with them. They thought that these things will be helpful for them in the next life. 

Pharaoh Khufu started 

Pharaoh Khufu started the first Giza project and it is said to be built near 2550 bc. This is a great pyramid and it is known as the largest in the world. The tower of the pyramid is very high which is nearly 481 feet and it is said to be situated on the plateau. You will be amazed to know that heavy structures and stones were used in the construction of these buildings. The best part is that advanced machinery was not available at that time and people used to work with hand or handmade tools. Nevertheless, this could not stop them from getting the construction of the excellent structure. They created mind-blowing structures. 

Creation of pyramids 

Khufu’s son started the next structure of the second pyramid and he is known as Pharaoh Khafre in history. He started building the second largest pyramid of history in circa 2520 B.C. Mysterious limestones monuments were installed in them. One mysterious body of a lion and a pharaoh’s head was also installed in it. The entire structure is full of mystery. 

Still a wonder for many

Many scientists are still trying to research how they could create such a wonderful structure in history. They started creating the structure years ago when no complicated machines or heavy cranes were available. Even in the modern context when we have everything that is required to build such a wonderful structure, it is not possible to build such a huge structure from them. The third great Giza pyramids is a bit smaller as compared to the other two structure. The other two structures that stand there are considerably smaller than the third one.

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