Understanding Art Is The Best Way To Learn The History

Understanding Art Is The Best Way To Learn The History

It is often said that the more you know about history, the more you can be prepared for what the future holds. This saying is quite true as one’s history can teach people a lot. It also said that learning from history is better than learning from experiences. While many, while the statement may be questioned, everyone can still accept that they would prefer learning things by knowing the history than experiencing something grave by themselves. This motivates people to learn all about historical events, stories, artefacts, culture, and more. People who want to learn about history can find many ways to do so. They can read texts, search online, and more. However, the best way to learn about history is often through understanding art.

Why is understanding art a great way to learn history?

Understanding art is a great way to learn about history as art can speak for itself. The people who lived in those times are not there to tell anything anymore. However, they know that men may die but art will never die and this is why they leave various artistic drawings, paintings, sculptures, artefacts, textures, and more behind that can mark their presence.

Art can be anything that humans make to express their emotions, feelings, and more. People often paint various cultural inferences which can help people understand the cultures that existed in the past. The sculptures can tell about the people that lived and the things that existed back then. Various drawings can tell us so much about history that it could be a great way of learning than just reading plain textbooks.

What are the benefits of learning history?

History can be a great thing to study for people. Some might do it to satisfy their curiosity, and some might be interested in knowing about the traditions and lifestyles. No matter what the reason for studying it might be, one can never deny that it has various benefits. These benefits have been mentioned here:

  • Learning history is understanding how various events took place and how the decisions of various people resulted in specific consequences. Learning this can make you better at understanding human nature. It can also educate you on how to go about things as every single action of yours can have severe consequences.
  • It makes you better at predicting what the outcome of a certain action might be. You can learn from history and teach them good values in your life. You can lead a better life this way, learning from the past.
  • History can be interpreted differently by different people. If you are someone creative, you might have different thoughts about a particular historical event than the others. This can help you explore unique ideas and embrace them right away.

Learning about both history and art can be different experiences. While they seem to be two different fields, they can also be studied together to understand better.

Introducing History Arts

Introducing History Arts

History tells so much about a place or a country. It takes individuals back to the time when everything started, and the foundation of life began. Some experts have studied it and are now sharing their information with everyone with keen interest. There are various mediums like books, magazines, videos, and audios that tell previous times and familiarise people with them all. The History Arts is a special way of giving out a message to the society that is preserved forever and is an integral part of our lives in today’s time.

Knowing about it

History Arts mainly focuses on all the objects that have visuals with an aesthetic purpose. They can be displayed in a diverse way where fine arts separate from applied arts, and it focuses inclusively on human creativity. Besides, it is a chronology of masterpieces that were created during civilization. It emphasizes things that belong to different cultures, with each one having their significance that is further displayed through visuals. Some forms of ancient art are also considered a style statement or an entire movement, regarded as a philosophy of art and art theory. It is also the very nature of art.

Stages of art

Following is a chronological summary of all the movements and development that took place in History Arts:

  • Stone age art: all the prehistoric art comes from epochs of prehistory: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic. The earliest art that was recorded was found in a quartzite shelter made of rock dating 29000 BCE. It was later, in 25000 BCE was followed by simple figurines made of rock. This culture and creativity of this art are associated very closely with the brain size and the efficiency it delivers in the form of language, creatives, and aesthetics.
  • Bronze age art: the art came into existence during the rise of Mesopotamia. Further, the emerging cities, introduction to languages in written and the development of tools brought about a whole new and wide range of monumental artworks.
  • Iron age art: the period of classical antiquity witnessed huge growth in Greece and eastern Mediterranean areas. It further collided with the rise of a culture that was influenced by the Greeks.
  • Medieval art: with the growth and expansion of Christianity, there came an art that provided everyone, including sculptors, painters, architects, with a theme that later became dominant in the visual arts. Since then, there have been many changes in this art to what it is now.

Art history news

Some main headlines of History Arts are the following:

  • The work of Nigerian artist Ben Enwonwu is being loved and appreciated in the world market and also attracts the attention of the people at an auction. The work has a huge meaning to the African community and also has an interesting backdrop to it.
  • A student of freshman art history has uncovered the identity of the miniature that belongs to Mughals and is linked to another sculpture that is in London to the one that is placed in Amsterdam.

The updates on the world History Arts change from time to time and can be accessed by those who have a membership to the newsletter. It is thus the most effective way to know about everything the past is offering to its future.

An Amazing Guide For You To Learn About The History Arts

An Amazing Guide For You To Learn About The History Arts

The historical backdrop of workmanship centers on objects created by people in a visual structure for tasty purposes. Visual workmanship can be ordered differently, for example, distinguishing expressive arts from applied expressions widely zeroing in on the human imagination or zeroing in on various media such as design, mold, painting, film, photography, and realistic expressions.

Mechanical advances have inspired video history art, PC workmanship, performance workmanship, livelihoods, TV, and videogames. The historical background of workmanship is often stated as magnum options performed during every human progression. Thus it can be outlined as an account of the high culture typified by the wonders of the world. Then again, vernacular workmanship articulation can be coordinated in history art.

What makes it important for anyone to learn History Arts?

History art gives a method by which one can understand the relation of our human past and its present, on the basis that the performance of making workmanship is one of the universal practices of mankind. As an artisan philanthropist, you will learn about this rich and important part of human culture. You will explore how to talk and expand on show-stoppers from different periods and places; similarly, different understandings will reveal how to uncover writing or history.

What is the benefit one can get from History Arts?

Control, while it is brilliantly linked to the investigation of additional manifestation of social history, style, financial aspects, legislative issues, and anthropology. This is important because it gives you an openness to various humanities subjects, relating them to the determination and basic evaluation of various works of art. Similarly, the learning cycle assists with finding out about important occasions in history and knows exactly how the timetable was experienced.

The grouping of experiences behind works of art on discrete occasions aids the learning of various clans and their societies. Similarly, it has helped in many respects to know the change of time at both the social, political, and financial levels. It allows its understanding to gather information and inspiration that ultimately connects the way individuals look and see the world around them.

Why one needs to study History Arts in detail?

History Arts as a specialist inquiry is particularly brilliant in humanities apart from the creation of the World Information Bank and the Union of Teaching Materials. This workmanship history study gives standard information to analysts, informing the foundations of understanding as if there were full flare-ups around there. The generalization of stylistics, feel, and logical translation of works of art has huge scholarly advantages in considering art history. A large part of the bits of history art that one sees has a changed story behind them. While amateurs tend to relish the grandeur of that piece of workmanship, an understanding of art history will set aside some attempts to notice the fundamental pit and establish it.

Learn About History Arts

Learn About History Arts

History plays an imperative role in human life. It allows people to know about the past and what it has to offer to the upcoming generation. Some dynasties and empires existed in different parts of the world with a leader for each of them and how they brought about changes for their people. The study of History Arts displays the structures and statues of many kings that are still kept in museums and are regarded as antiques of world history. Every year, several people visit such ancient places and learn more about them.

What is this history about?

History Arts is a detailed study of aesthetic objects with a historical and stylish aspect when displayed visually. It emphasizes painting, drawing, sculpture, ceramics, decorative arts, architecture and displays a broad aspect of all the historical outcomes that are ever-evolving and define art in the best way. Art also has an artistic value concerning an individual’s work in a comparable style and sanctions the movement regarding art theory or philosophy that is regarded as the fundamental nature of art.

Why study it?

It provides individuals with an opportunity to develop all the skills that are essential along with core talents that are offered in a good education of liberal arts. It adds special attention to critical looking and building of core skills as it analyses the qualities of images, objects, and buildings that are used as a medium to communicate. History Arts teaches all the arts and architecture across the entire millennia with a variety of approaches on every subject. Besides, individuals have to focus on aesthetic, historic significance, and social relevance. With a broader knowledge of historic, cultural, geographical aspects, art history allows satisfaction of all the expectations and offers excellent formation that intends to specialize in different areas.

History of humanity

Human history is also referred to as world history, and it is the best way to describe the past of humanity. It is informed through various processes, some of which include archaeology, genetics, anthropology, and many other disciplines ever since writing was invented and history was recorded. The history of humanity begins from the Palaeolithic era, followed by the Neolithic era. Further, an agricultural revolution took place, and systematic husbandry of plants and animals started taking place. The human lifestyle now transformed from nomadic to permanent settlers in the form of farmers. Productivity and security increased that provided new communities to expand themselves in large units that are fostered by advancement in transportation.

Historical news

  1. The ancient mosaics in St. Marks Basilica in Venice are being restored. The floors were ancient, and there was a constant threat of flooding and damage. The peacock feature on the floor is being redone in decorative schemes even though the process is messy and complicated.
  2. The Picasso’s from 1917s have deteriorated quickly because they were coated with a thicker ground layer as compared to all other works of that period. The result came out through an intensive research project.

Besides these, there are many other latest updates on History Arts that should be known to the civilization as it helps them know about the surroundings and things going on in and around the world.

Few details about world war one!

Few details about world war one!

World War 1 which is also very well-known with the name of ww1 is considered the most devastating war in the world, which experiences over 60 million casualties, including military and civil persons around the world especially in the European countries. Many countries started to fight with each other in the year 1914, and it continues for the next four years, which confirms that this is one of the most dangerous wars ever happened in this very world.

However, some general things about World War 1 are some unique things that you also need to know, which will help you understand this particular historical event that completely changed the world. Many countries lost their lives and decreased the GDP’s overall rate, which hits the economic status very severely.

Most European countries are affected.

World War 1 mainly affected European countries where many persons lose their lives just because of the insanity of the military persons being done over the specific roadshow the various European countries. The central conflict is between Italy and Turkey, and because of their conflict, many countries also come forward to give strength to their friendly country, which results in world war.

Heavy weapons

Most of the various countries’ military powers use massive amounts of weapons to kill their opponents and kill the civilized people living in a particular part of the land. World war one witness almost model weapons that have never been used before in various wars ever happened on this earth.

Peace treaties

After seeing so many devastation process in the various parts of the European countries, some special authorities come forward to make some peace. Fortunately, after the continued war of four years, the world war has stopped because of the efforts being made by the variety of countries available in this world.

It is also the start of the UNO, but in the first world war, the UNO’s overall strength is not as like as it is now in the world. But somehow they managed to give some particular messages to the various countries we are continuously fighting with because of their particular reason.

Online assistance

Apart from that, if you also want to get some extra information about the various aspects of world war, you should visit some particular online websites that include almost every kind of Encyclopaedia related to the same world war year of 1914 to 18. It is also advisable for YouTube to visit some particular YouTube channels where you will find some famous historians giving almost every detail about world war one.

Getting all the Useful information about the Historical events like world war over the online sources always provides you with every kind of information you always desired as a person who wants to know each and everything about the particular events that ever happened on this earth.

These are the few things about a famous historical event like a world war, which you helped you get all the unique information about it.

Kargil war between India and Pakistan was discussed!

Kargil war between India and Pakistan was discussed!

There is always an immense tension continuous between the two nations of the world, like India and Pakistan. Before the Independence of the Indian country in 1947, Pakistan is an essential part of Indian origin. But after the Independence from the British Empire, India detached from the western part of the Indian subcontinent area, and it becomes the land of Pakistan where most of the people belong to the Muslim community.

Right after Independence Day’s particular incident is the problem going on continuously between Pakistan and India only because of the Jammu and Kashmir. It is one particular land which is considered as the most disputed area of the world. Right from the beginning, both countries fought with each other so often, and fortunately for the Indian country, they won in every battle. Today I will discuss some necessary details about the historical event of the Kargil war, which is also the leading cause of conflicts between the two giant nations like India and Pakistan.

L.o.c

  • Kargil war is mainly considered the line of control war between the India and Pakistan military, who try to increase their land with the same battle in 1999. Both countries are MI what well to occupy the land of the Kashmir, but in the end, it is India who won the battle with their better skills in the war.

Deaths

  • Like the father War happened in the world, this war also witnessed so many treats for the military people who lost their lives during the battle. Almost 10000 military people know they’re living in this particular war between the two nations that considered it the most devastating war that never happened in India and Pakistan’s history.

Agra meet 

  • Kargil war happened only because of the Agra’s failure between the Indian Prime Minister and Pakistan prime minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Pervez Musharraf. Right after this piece needs in the Taj Mahal’s particular land, Pakistan is ready to fight with the Indian military because of the dispute that happened in the same meeting.
  • Agra meeting is mainly organized to get a unique peace between the two countries which regularly willing to fight with each other because of the dispute of Jammu and Kashmir. Many nations like the USA United Kingdom tried their level best to settle down the conflict between the two Nations, but unfortunately, still, there is no hope for good.

YouTube information

  • It is also necessary for you to visit some particular YouTube channels where you will find some famous historians giving enormous details about the same historical event like the Kargil war that happened in the year late 1999. It will help you to understand the leading cause of conflict between the two countries and also the main reason for Kargil war between the two giant nations which almost demolish the economic status of two battle between the two Nations
  • Whenever battles happened between the two Nations, it is only the country’s civil people who suffered a lot just because of the specific cause of the conflict.

Understanding the importance of history in a person’s life

Understanding the importance of history in a person’s life

Whenever some hear about history, the majority of people think of boring classrooms and lectures. Everybody feels that history is useless and it doesn’t affect much in a person’s life. Some think that learning about history and historical events is a waste of time. Some even strongly suggest people not indulge in history and learn things necessary for life like science and technology. But the reality is very different, history as important as mathematics or science. A person should know about their past and know all the important things in their country or their region. This is something that gives a person identity and personality. The importance of history can not be described in a word, but a person can it through examples.

Identity crisis:

If a person is asked from which country they are originally from, for example. It will be very simple to respond to that question; based on their ethnicity, an individual may simply state that they are Indian or American. But what happens when an individual starts worrying about their identity? What, for example, is the concept of India? What is America? And that is where heritage comes into play; it is the total of all the feelings, past incidents, and stories that have occurred in a nation. So, if you’re ever in confusion about their life, a person should dig and explore their history or past. Then only will they get an idea of their identity and what they are? Some people don’t give these ideas thought, and these are the same people who face identity crises later on in their life. If an individual doesn’t want these identity crises to happen, they should take up those history books.

History and humanity:

If a person says that they think history is boring or is very monotonous, they have never been taught history properly because history is by virtue one of the most interesting topics to study. Knowing all the important things in the past and learning about all the important leaders who led humanity this far is very interesting and insightful. One can say the world’s future is pretty much dependent on the past; this is why the world is still divided into different nations and countries. And this is also the same thing that forms ideologies and brings people together. So learning history is like a mixed fruit basket; one may never know what they will get. It helps in bringing closer together; it gives a sense of compassion and friendship among people. In short, this is what makes humanity closer.

Real history:

History is really fun; one can say that it is like arts. Knowing this that other people don’t know is a good way to start a conversation with people. This is what draws individual attention towards other people.

So in conclusion, people should learn and explore history if they can.

How did the ancient Olympics start?

How did the ancient Olympics start?

Games and sports are an essential part of history and when we talk about the historical events they are most important. People were greatly attached to games and sports. The best part is that many sentimental were also attached to them. it is said that ancient games like axe throwing, which now has a modern spin, Mobile Axe Throwing, started in Olympia, Greece in 776 BC. But it took many years to form the Olympics officially and in 1896 the modern context of the Olympics was seen nicely and properly. One Frenchman named Baron Pierre de Coubertin gave birth to the modern structure of the Olympics. The idea of this game came into existence in 1894.

Olympics starting

The next thing that made the Olympics famous in the entire world is its famous symbol of flames or torch. This symbol was also a result of the gradual efforts of many people who work hard in the same context. This came to the attention of people in 1928. The best part is that there was no torch relay ceremony was involved in the old-time Olympics.

This started in 1936 and the first Olympics that started with the torch ceremony was held in Berlin. After that, it becomes an indispensable part of the modern Olympic and since then this particular tradition is being continued. The other thing is the Olympic oath, which was introduced to the people in 1920. Nowadays, you can watch sports event as they happen and even bet live at www.ufabet123.com/%e0%b9%80%e0%b8%a7%e0%b9%87%e0%b8%9a%e0%b8%9e%e0%b8%99%e0%b8%b1%e0%b8%99%e0%b8%9a%e0%b8%ad%e0%b8%a5-%e0%b8%94%e0%b8%b5%e0%b8%97%e0%b8%b5%e0%b9%88%e0%b8%aa%e0%b8%b8%e0%b8%94/ to possibly earn a decent amount of money.

Marathon and Olympics

The other thing is that most people think that the marathon is also a part of the Olympics. Nevertheless, this is not true because this was not part of the ancient Olympic Games. It was added to it after many years later of the starting of the original Olympics. Modern Olympic Games were started in 1896 in Athens and the race was a part of this particular race. It was there with a distance of 40 kilometers. This was the first time when the race was a part of the Olympics.

Measurements

Years after this, many rules and other regulations were there to be part of the Olympics. The racing distance was also declared and decided. Many standards values were taken into the consideration for this. The exact measurements of the distances were also taken into care with this particular race competition in the Olympics. The other thing, which played a major role in the race competition, was the finishing line. The finishing line kept inside the white city stadium in the Olympics of 1908. In this, particular games were held in the city of London.

Transparency

Everything was well measured to make things more clear and transparent in the game. This gave birth to the new era in which the Olympics and race were together. In a simple world, this revolution does not happen in a day or two. Gradual efforts were made in this direction and after years this particular task was taken into consideration. You will be surprised to know the fact that nudity was also a part of the Olympics and it said that one man runs naked in the stadion race in 720 B.C.

History as the Present – Its Role in Shaping Identities and Perceptions

History as the Present – Its Role in Shaping Identities and Perceptions

History is a prime agent of shaping our personalities. Thus, to be aware of one’s history translates into an awareness of oneself, or at the very least, a surface-level introduction to one’s identity. To understand how history spreads its branches and permeates almost all aspects of our personality, we must analyze the role of history as a tool that determines not only our past but also our future.

History as the Past

The term history, in its most common application as an academic discipline, derives from its attachment to the past – things that have already happened, important dates of formulation of national policies, wars, independence, birthdays, and so on. It is evident that one’s past is pivotal in determining their life – for instance, you might expect an indigenous Indian to be wary of technocratic capitalism, much like you would yourself be wary of something that reminds you of a traumatic experience from childhood.

History as the Present

It is widely acknowledged that history works not only as a passive determinant in the background but is an omnipresent feature of one’s daily life. Every mode of action resembling a social norm or custom, or the plethora of traditional beliefs that one continues to propagate, are all the workings of history in the present, unlike the mainstream perception of it as merely an irrelevant, intangible substance of the past.

History as the Future

Here’s where it gets complicated. How does a study of the past come to include a role in determining the future of countries and individuals?

To understand this better, take the example of a kid bitten by a dog in his childhood. The incident, although it happened years back when he was a child, comes to have a direct effect on the adult who is always wary of a dog in the streets because it is reminiscent of a bad experience. Not only does it influence his psyche in the present, but it also restricts him in the future from ever hoping to get a pet dog.

Similarly, a country ravaged by colonial and imperial interests in the past comes to be termed as belonging to the ‘third world’ – although the truth is, it has been left overexploited by rich colonial empires. This problem extends into the future as well, determining the policies and laws which the country adopts, the state of the next generation of populations (who will have to grow up in abject poverty), the scant availability of natural resources (left in shambles by the parasitic policies of its imperial government), and so on.

The Fallacy of Divorcing History from the Present

From the above examples, it is clear that one would be doing a massive disservice to history by not acknowledging its role while judging present circumstances or prospects. Any critical analysis of a subject, be it a country or a nation, or the actions of an individual – should at all times come accompanied by an awareness of the nature of circumstances that has led to its present form. By divorcing the past from the present, we reduce our vision of judging something by generous proportions, and instead come across as biased and fallacious. It is important to remember that history has not stopped happening, and we take part in moulding it through actions that may seem as trivial as reading an essay or writing one.

The Lives of the Twelve Caesars Claudius by Suetonius

The Lives of the Twelve Caesars Claudius by Suetonius
  1. Having thus established himself in power, his first object was to abolish all remembrance of the two preceding days, in which a revolution in the state had been canvassed. Accordingly, he passed an act of perpetual oblivion and pardon for everything said or done caring that time; and this he faithfully observed, with the exception only of putting to death a few tribunes and centurions concerned in the conspiracy against Caius, both as an example, and because he understood that they had also planned his own death. He now turned his thoughts towards paying respect to the memory of his relations. His most solemn and usual oath was, “By Augustus.”

He prevailed upon the senate to decree divine honours to his grandmother Livia, with a chariot in the Circensian procession drawn by elephants, as had been appointed for Augustus, and public offerings to the shades of his parents. Besides which, he instituted Circensian games for his father, to be celebrated every year, upon his birth day, and, for his mother, a chariot to be drawn through the circus; with the title of Augusta, which had been refused by his grandmother. To the memory of his brother, to which, upon all occasions, he showed a great regard, he gave a Greek comedy, to be exhibited in the public diversions at Naples, and awarded the crown for it, according to the sentence of the judges in that solemnity. Nor did he omit to make honourable and grateful mention of Mark Antony; declaring by a proclamation, “That he the more earnestly insisted upon the observation of his father Drusus’s birth-day, because it was like wise that of his grandfather Antony.” He completed the marble arch near Pompey’s theatre, which had formerly been decreed by the senate in honour of Tiberius, but which had been neglected. And though he canceled all the acts of Gaius, yet he forbade the day of his assassination, notwithstanding it was that of his own accession to the empire, to be reckoned amongst the festivals.

  1. But with regard to his own aggrandizement, he was sparing and modest, declining the name of emperor, and refusing all excessive honours. He celebrated the marriage of his daughter and the birth-day of a grandson with great privacy, at home. He recalled none of those who had been banished, without a decree of the senate: and requested of them permission for the prefect and the military tribunes of the praetorian guards to attend him in the senate-house; and also that they would be pleased to bestow upon his procurators judicial authority in the provinces. He asked of the consuls likewise the privilege of holding fairs upon his private estate. He frequently assisted the magistrates in the trial of causes, as one of their assessors. And when they gave public spectacles, he would rise up with the rest of the spectators, and salute them both by words and gestures. When the tribunes of the people came to him while he was on the tribunal, he excused himself, because, on account of the crowd, he could not hear them unless they stood. In a short time, by this conduct, he wrought himself so much into the favour and affection of the public, that when, upon his going to Ostia, a report was spread in the city that he had been waylaid and slain, the people never ceased cursing the soldiers for traitors, and the senate as parricides, until one or two persons, and presently after several others, were brought by the magistrates upon the rostra, who assured them that he was alive, and not far from the city, on his way home.
  2. Conspiracies, however, were formed against him, not only by individuals separately, but by a faction; and at last his government was disturbed with a civil war. A low fellow was found with a poniard about him, near his chamber, at midnight. Two men of the equestrian order were discovered waiting for him in the streets, armed with a pike and a huntsman’s dagger; one of them intending to attack him as he came out of the theatre, and the other as he was sacrificing in the temple of Mars. Gallus Asinius and Statilius Corvinus, grandsons of the two orators, Pollio and Messala, formed a conspiracy against him, in which they engaged many of his freedmen and slaves. Furius Camillus Scribonianus, his legate in Dalmatia, broke into rebellion, but was reduced in the space of five days; the legions which he had seduced from their oath of fidelity relinquishing their purpose, upon an alarm occasioned by ill omens. For when orders were given them to march, to meet their new emperor, the eagles could not be decorated, nor the standards pulled out of the ground, whether it was by accident, or a divine interposition.
  3. Besides his former consulship, he held the office afterwards four times; the first two successively, but the following, after an interval of four years each; the last for six months, the others for two; and the third, upon his being chosen in the room of a consul who died; which had never been done by any of the emperors before him. Whether he was consul or out of office, he constantly attended the courts for the administration of justice, even upon such days as were solemnly observed as days of rejoicing in his family, or by his friends; and sometimes upon the public festivals of ancient institution. Nor did he always adhere strictly to the letter of the laws, but overruled the rigour or lenity of many of their enactments, according to his sentiments of justice and equity. For where persons lost their suits by insisting upon more than appeared to be their due, before the judges of private causes, he granted them the indulgence of a second trial. And with regard to such as were convicted of any great delinquency, he even exceeded the punishment appointed by law, and condemned them to be exposed to wild beasts.
  4. But in hearing and determining causes, he exhibited a strange inconsistency of temper, being at one time circumspect and sagacious, at another inconsiderate and rash, and sometimes frivolous and like one out of his mind. In correcting the roll of judges, he struck off the name of one who, concealing the privilege his children gave him to be excused from serving, had answered to his name, as too eager for the office. Another who was summoned before him in a cause of his own, but alleged that the affair did not properly come under the emperor’s cognizance, but that of the ordinary judges, he ordered to plead the cause himself immediately before him, and show in a case of his own, how equitable a judge he would prove in that of other persons. A woman refusing to acknowledge her own son, and there being no clear proof on either side, he obliged her to confess the truth, by ordering her to marry the young man. He was much inclined to determine causes in favour of the parties who appeared, against those who did not, without inquiring whether their absence was occasioned by their own fault or by real necessity. On proclamation of a man’s being convicted of forgery, and that he ought to have his hand cut off, he insisted that an executioner should be immediately sent for, with a Spanish sword and a block. A person being prosecuted for falsely assuming the citizenship, and a frivolous dispute arising between the advocates in the cause, whether he ought to make his appearance in the Roman or Grecian dress, to show his impartiality, he commanded him to change his clothes several times according to the character he assumed in the accusation or defense. An anecdote is related of him, and believed to be true, that, in a particular cause he delivered his sentence in writing thus: ” I am in favour of those who have spoken the truth.” By this he so much forfeited the good opinion of the world, that he was everywhere and openly despised. A person making an excuse for the non-appearance of a witness whom he had sent for from the provinces, declared it was impossible for him to appear, concealing the reason for some time: at last, after several interrogatories were put to him on the subject, he answered, “The man is dead;” to which Claudius replied, ” I think that is a sufficient excuse.” Another thanking him for suffering a person who was prosecuted to make his defense by counsel, added, ” And yet it is no more than what is usual.” I have likewise heard some old men say, that the advocates used to abuse his patience so grossly, that they would not only call him back, as he was quitting the tribunal, but would seize him by the hem of his toga, and sometimes catch him by the heels, to make him stay. That such behaviour, however strange, is not incredible, will appear from this anecdote. Some obscure Greek, who was a litigant, had an altercation with him, in which he called out, ” You are an old fool.” It is certain that a Roman knight, who was prosecuted by unscrupulous enemies on a false charge of obscenity with women, observing that common strumpets were summoned against him and allowed to give evidence, upbraided Claudius in very harsh and severe terms with his folly and cruelty, and threw his style, and some books which he had in his hands, in his face, with such violence as to wound him severely in the cheek.
  5. He likewise assumed the censorship, which had been discontinued since the time that Paulus and Plancus had jointly held it. But this also he administered very unequally, and with a strange variety of humour and conduct. In his review of the knights, he passed over, without any mark of disgrace, a profligate young man, only because his father spoke of him in the highest terms; “for,” said he, ” his father is his proper censor.” Another, who was infamous for debauching youths and for adultery, he only admonished “to indulge his youthful inclinations more sparingly, or at least more cautiously ;” adding, “why must I know what mistress you keep?” When, at the request of his friends, he had taken off a mark of infamy which he had set upon one knight’s name he said, “Let the blot, however, remain.” He not only struck out of the list of judges, but likewise deprived of Roman citizenship, an illustrious man of the highest provincial rank in Greece, because he was ignorant of the Latin language. Nor in this review did he suffer any one to give an account of his conduct by an advocate, but obliged each man to speak for himself in the best way he could. He disgraced many, and some that little expected it, and for a reason entirely new, namely, for going out of Italy without his license; and one likewise, for having in his province, been the familiar companion of a king; observing, that, in former times, Rabirius Postumus had been prosecuted for treason, although he only went after Ptolemy to Alexandria for the purpose of securing payment of a debt. Having tried to brand with disgrace several others, he, to his own greater shame, found them generally innocent, through the negligence of the persons employed to inquire into their characters; those whom he charged with living in celibacy, with want of children, or estate, proving themselves to be husbands, parents, and in affluent circumstances. One of the knights who was charged with stabbing himself, laid his bosom bare, to show that there was not the least mark of violence upon his body. The following incidents were remarkable in his censorship. He ordered a chariot, plated with silver, and of very sumptuous workmanship, which was exposed for sale in the Sigillaria, to be purchased, and broken in pieces before his eyes. He published twenty proclamations in one day, in one of which he advised the people, “Since the vintage was very plentiful, to have their casks well secured at the bung with pitch :” and in another, he told them, “that nothing would sooner cure the bite of a viper, than the sap of the yew-tree.”
  6. He undertook only one expedition, and that was of short duration. The triumphal ornaments decreed him by the senate, he considered as beneath the imperial dignity, and was therefore resolved to have the honour of a real triumph. For this purpose, he selected Britain, which had never been attempted by any one since Julius Caesar, and was then chafing with rage, because the Romans would not give up some deserters. Accordingly, he set sail from Ostia, but was twice very near being wrecked by the furious north-wester, upon the coast of Liguria, and near the islands called Stoechades. Having marched by land from Marseilles to Boulogne, he thence passed over to Britain, and part of the island submitting to him, within a few days after his arrival, without battle or bloodshed, he returned to Rome in less than six months from the time of his departure, and triumphed in the most solemn manner; to witness which, he not only gave leave to governors of provinces to come to Rome, but even to some of the exiles. Among the spoils taken from the enemy, he fixed upon the pediment of his house with high-end pergolas within the property on the Palatine, a naval crown, in token of his having passed, and, as it were, conquered the Ocean, and had it suspended near the civic crown which was there before. Messalina, his wife, followed his chariot in a covered litter. Those who had attained the honour of triumphal ornaments in the same war, rode behind; the rest followed on foot, wearing the robe with the broad stripes. Crassus Frugi was mounted upon a horse richly caparisoned, in a robe embroidered with palm leaves, because this was the second time of his obtaining that honour.
  7. He paid particular attention to the care of the city, and to have it well supplied with provisions. A dreadful fire happening in the Aemiliana, which lasted some time, he passed two nights in the Diribitorium, and the soldiers and gladiators not being in sufficient numbers to extinguish it, he caused the magistrates to summon the people out of all the streets in the city, to their assistance. Placing bags of money before him, he encouraged them to do their utmost, declaring, that he would reward every one on the spot, according to their exertions. During a scarcity of provisions, occasioned by bad crops for several successive years, he was stopped in the middle of the forum by the mob, who so abused him, at the same time pelting him with fragments of bread that he had some difficulty in escaping into the palace by a back door. He therefore used all possible means to bring provisions to the city, even in winter. He proposed to the merchants a sure profit, by indemnifying them against any loss that might befall them by storms at sea; and granted great privileges to those who built ships for that traffic.
  8. To a citizen of Rome he gave an exemptions from the penalty of the Papia-Poppaean law to one who had only the Latin rights of citizenship, and to women the rights which by law belonged to those who had four children: which enactments are in force to this day.
  9. He completed some important public works which, though, not numerous, were very useful. The principal were an aqueduct, which had been begun by Gaius; an outlet for the discharge of the waters of the Fucine lake, and the harbour of Ostia; although he knew that Augustus had refused to comply with the repeated application of the Marsians for one of these, and that the other had been several times intended by Julius Caesar, but as often abandoned on account of the difficulty of its execution. He brought to the city the cool and plentiful springs of the Claudian water, one of which is called Caeruleus, and the other Curtius and Albudignus, as likewise the river of the New Anio, in a stone canal; and distributed them into many magnificent reservoirs. The canal from the Fucine lake was undertaken as much for the sake of profit, as for the honour of the enterprise; for there were parties who offered to drain it at their own expense, on condition of their having a grant of the land laid dry. With great difficulty he completed a canal three miles in length, partly by cutting through, and partly by tunneling, a mountain; thirty thousand men being constantly employed in the work for eleven years. He formed the harbour at Ostia, by carrying out circular piers on the right and on the left, with a mole protecting, in deep water, the entrance of the port. To secure the foundation of this mole, he sunk the vessel in which the great obelisk had been brought from Egypt; and built upon piles a very lofty tower, in imitation of the Pharos at Alexandria, on which lights were burnt to direct mariners in the night.
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